link rpm   urpmi make


solaris   dhcp
c references
misc reference pages
Don Nelson resume
computer collections
X setup
radio stations
install tricks
html ref popup
ftp netrc


David Taylor SW         
Computerworld Sharktank
Inside KSC                 
The Register              
The smoking gun      
yahoo groups            
bad                                        ananova  
blogs, linux help        
audio recorder            
pc beep codes, etc    
this old house                       toh

ucar weather pages      weather  water
faa charts                    

rolla radio                             link
acme map of rolla              map

code search engine    
linux usb device ref site
Linux Devices              
fedora core forum       
linux links                     
fedora core forum                           
Linux Journal               
Linux Magazine                                
single cd linux router  
distro list site               
linux cross reference  
redhat updates (LSU)
linux questions           
linux reference list      
general references     

Linux Video

Fedora Myth                   Myth(ology)
Handbrake (dvd reformat)
$ ../xawtv/bin/streamer -b 64 -t 20:00 -s 352x240 -n pal -r 25 -j 80 -o
test2.avi -f mjpeg -F stereo

High Availability + ISCSI
Heartbeat 1.2.2
iSCSI Init                             
iSCSI Target                                 howto  iSCSI Enterprise Target
gnbd                                       Global Network Block Device
microsquish                                 server 2000  discussion

unsorted list of links

fun toy pages
tesla coils
ntsb aviation accidents

windows utility stuff, and usb dongle stuff
usb and cd stuff        

open source mv(pick)
file format info page 
opensolaris                         source

legal terms (most latin)       Latin                                                   Linux Cross Reference, Browse code online                                   linux disto index   - handy linux howtos, printer, rpm... - simple RAID intro with nice diagrams                          - Linux-RAID Frequently Asked Questions                            - The Software RAID How-to                         - software RAID patches                            - RAID tools               - ide patches, including Promise                                              - ReiserFS journaling FS - Linux-RAID mailing-list archive  ReiserFS mailing-list archive - Boot+Root+RAID+LILO How-to                                      - RAIDWeb By Electonix - IDE RAID Units                                             - RAIDZONE - High performance disk
                                                                        arrays using Ultra ATA disks                       - Linux-Kernel mailing-list archive                                    - IRQTUNE -- A Linux IRQ Priority Optimizer                         - "Journal File Systems" article
                                                                            from Linux Gazette issue 55 - ext3 (ext2 compatible) journaling FS                - ext3 source                                     - XFS journalling file system from SGI, beta                                     - tux2 journalling file system                                     - subscribe linux-raid                                     - RAID solutions for Linux                  - The Linux
                                                             Ultra-DMA Mini-Howto: Off-board PCI UDMA interfaces                          - how to turn a Promise
                                                             Ultra66/100 into a FastTrak66/100 (German)                         - Ultra ATA/66 Hard Drive Roundup                                           - see advanced level server cases                                                - cases, including file server cases                                         - see Products: Server Chassis                                           - see CPU: Cases

Misc Info
 Lynn Wheeler                                      

URPMI website
Mandrake tips for Free


other links
google maps links

HP 1000 computer

RPM tricks

This document contains an overview of the principal RPM commands for installing, uninstalling, upgrading, querying, listing, and checking RPM packages on your Red Hat Linux system.

rpm search site

# rpm -ivh foo-2.0-4.i386.rpm
# rpm -i
# rpm -i
Used to install a RPM package. Note that RPM packages have file naming conventions like foo-2.0-4.i386.rpm, which include the package name (foo), version (2.0), release (4), and architecture (i386). Also notice that RPM understands FTP and HTTP protocols for installing and querying remote RPM files.

# rpm -e foo
To uninstall a RPM package. Note that we used the package name foo, not the name of the original package file foo-2.0-4.i386.rpm above.

# rpm -Uvh foo-1.0-2.i386.rpm
# rpm -Uvh
# rpm -Uvh
To upgrade a RPM package. Using this command, RPM automatically uninstall the old version of the foo package and install the new package. It is safe to always use rpm -Uvh to install and upgrade packages, since it works fine even when there are no previous versions of the package installed! Also notice that RPM understands FTP and HTTP protocols for upgrading from remote RPM files.

# rpm -qa
To query all installed packages. This command will print the names of all installed packages installed on your Linux system.

# rpm -q foo
To query a RPM package. This command will print the package name, version, and release number of the package foo only if it is installed. Use this command to verify that a package is or is not installed on your Linux system.

# rpm -qi foo
To display package information. This command display package information including the package name, version, and description of the installed program. Use this command to get detailed information about the installed package.

# rpm -ql foo
To list files in installed package. This command will list all of files in an installed RPM package. It works only when the package is already installed on your Linux system.

# rpm -qf /usr/bin/mysql
Which package owns a file? This command checks to determine which installed package a particular file belongs to.

# rpm -qpl kernel-2.4.20-18.10.1.i686.rpm
# rpm -qpl
# rpm -qpl
List files in RPM file. This command allows you to query a (possibly) uninstalled RPM file with the use of the the "-p" option. You can use the "-p" option to operate on an RPM file without actually installing anything. This command lists all files in an RPM file you have in the current directory. Also note that RPM can query remote files through the FTP and HTTP protocols.

# rpm --verify mysql
To verify an installed package. This command will list all files that do NOT pass the verify tests (done on size, MD5 signature, etc). Where a file does NOT pass, the output is listed using the following codes that signify what failed:
    S File size
M Mode (includes permissions and file type)
5 MD5 sum
L Symlink
D Device
U User
G Group
T Mtime
Take for example the following:
  # rpm --verify mysql
S.5....T c /etc/my.cnf
This example indicates that file /etc/my.cnf failed on:
  File size 
MD5 Sum
Modified Time
However, the "c" tells us this is a configuration file so that explains the changes. It should still be looked at to determine what the changes were.

# rpm --checksig foo
To check a RPM signature package. This command checks the PGP signature of specified package to ensure its integrity and origin. Always use this command first before installing a new RPM package on your system. Also, GnuPG or Pgp software must be already installed on your system before you can use this command.


urpmi for mandrake configuration.  following adds mounted cd's to search list.  note that the path you select
is the one with all the .rpm's.  this isn't really specified anywhere that well.  No clue whether hdlist is good to go,
or synthesis.hdlist is.  I selected synthesis and it seemed to install mozilla.

the "relative" path that is asked for is the one to get to the hdlist from wherever the rpms are.

The /etc/urpmi/urpmi.cfg file will contain a key number.  If messing with this, it is not clear where this comes
from.  It may be from the md5 checksums on the rpms, or somewhere else. If manually messing with the
config what is not known is where that comes from

urpmi.addmedia cd1  file://exportiso/mandrake-cd1/media/main with ../media_info/
urpmi.addmedia cd2  file://exportiso/mandrake-cd2/media/main2 with media_info/
urpmi.addmedia cd3  file://exportiso/mandrake-cd3/media/main3 with media_info/

following are paths of mounted cd images on the system. 

directory contains images:
//eng-w2k/LinuxDownloads on /export/eng-w2k-linuxdownloads type smbfs (0)

images are loop mounted this way:
/export/eng-w2k-linuxdownloads/Mandrake/Mandrakelinux-10.1-Community-Download-CD1.i586.iso on /exportiso/mandrake-cd1 type iso9660 (rw,loop=/dev/loop0)
/export/eng-w2k-linuxdownloads/Mandrake/Mandrakelinux-10.1-Community-Download-CD2.i586.iso on /exportiso/mandrake-cd2 type iso9660 (rw,loop=/dev/loop1)
/export/eng-w2k-linuxdownloads/Mandrake/Mandrakelinux-10.1-Community-Download-CD3.i586.iso on /exportiso/mandrake-cd3 type iso9660 (rw,loop=/dev/loop2)

set up URPMI from remote site
1) Core distribution:

Other sources::

urpmi.addmedia plf-free with
urpmi.addmedia plf-nonfree with
urpmi.addmedia main with media_info/
urpmi.addmedia contrib with media_info/
urpmi.addmedia jpackage with media_info/

compose new remote urpmi tool:

the above tool will create the urpmi statement for you for mandrake / mandriva to make urpmi couple to a remote site.

the good news about urpmi is that it is easy to use when setup.  the bad news is that it has about a 20mb download
database required to couple it into the system you are installing on.  After you do the urpmi addmedia, it takes a
nontrivial amount of time to download the contrib file.



Awk Notes

Print all fields in reverse order

This will take a "I-am-yoda" string and print out


Very useful for the next Star Wars sequel

awk -F '-' '{ for (i = NF; i > 0; --i) print $i }'

Print the last field instead of the first field

If you just want the last word, do this

echo $LOCAL | awk -F '-' '{ i = NF; print $i }'

BASH variable inside AWK command

It's rather difficult to find this on the internet. Hope it's useful.

awk -F '-' '{ i = NF; print $'${BASHVARIABLE}'}'


Lifted from smp-faq:

# make [modules|zImage|bzImages] MAKE="make -jX"

Where X=max number of processes. WARNING: This won't work for "make dep".

Since running multiple compilers allows a machine with sufficient memory to use use the otherwise wasted CPU time during I/O caused delays make MAKE="make -j 2" -j 2 actually even helps on uniprocessor boxes (from Ralf B.chle).

Solaris DHCP fix

Someone else posted this solution for unknown hostname with dhcp soloaris.

First of all, For Solaris 8 we need to edit the file /etc/init.d/network and change the line that reads. You can put a #sign before the line to disable it or change the line completely.

"dhcp") hostname=`/sbin/dhcpinfo Hostname` ;;
# "dhcp") hostname=`/sbin/dhcpinfo Hostname` ;;
"dhcp") hostname=`shcat /etc/nodename` ;;
Then, edit the file /etc/init.d/inetsvc and change the line that reads
hostname=`/sbin/dhcpinfo Hostname`
# hostname=`/sbin/dhcpinfo Hostname`
hostname=`/usr/bin/cat /etc/nodename`

Save the files and reboot the system. The system's hostname will be the entry in the file /etc/nodename.

another version

Sorry for the delay writing this Summary:

This *is* in the list archives but I found I had to really dig and piece it
together. maybe its just me. :-)

Here is what worked for me in hopes that it benifits others - your mileage
may vary.

Create or edit the files outlined and reboot:


inet yourhostname

edit /etc/default/dhcpagent and set


Create this script:

HOSTNAME=`cat /etc/nodename`
echo "Setting hostname to $HOSTNAME... \c"
uname -S $HOSTNAME
echo "Done."

Symlink /etc/init.d/set_hostname to /etc/rc2.d/S70set_hostname

Thanks to Hichael Morton, Alan Pae, Paul Boven, Sid Wilroy, Gerard Henry,
Dave Miner and Mitchell Bruntel and others who replied and provided
suggestions to me.

ssh setup


sshd settings in /etc/ssh/sshd_config
PermitRootLogin yes
X11Forwarding yes

ssh settings in /etc/ssh/ssh_config
  ForwardX11 yes
  ForwardX11Trusted yes

ssh-keygen -t rsa
[root@purple]# ssh-keygen -t rsa
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/cantin/.ssh/id_rsa):
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in /home/cantin/.ssh/id_rsa.
Your public key has been saved in /home/cantin/.ssh/
The key fingerprint is:
ba:d0:f0:0d:de:ad:be:ef:ff:aa:dd:ee:99:88:77:dd root@purple
creates .ssh/
for convenience, rename this <hostname>  in this case
copy this to system to log into.  add to authorized_keys2 with text edit append.

[root@purple]# cat authorized_keys2
ssh-rsa <long string of crap>=
ssh-rsa <long string of crap>= root@localhost
ssh-rsa <long string of crap>= root@jws80

this has to be performed for any login id on any system

For Keepalive, use

Host *
Protocol 2
ServerAliveInterval 60
in the file


X11 Session Forwarding

One lesser known feature of X windows is its network transparency. It was designed to be able to transmit window and bitmap information over a network connection. So essentially you can login to a remote desktop machine and run some X windows program like Gnumeric, Gimp or even Firefox and the program will run on the remote computer, but will display its graphical output on your local computer.

To try this out, you will need an account on a remote computer that has X windows installed with some X windows applications. servers do not have any such programs so you will need to either login to one of your other workstations or another server that does have them. The key to making it work is using the -X option, which means "forward the X connection through the SSH connection". This is a form of tunneling.

ssh -X

If this doesn't work, you may have to setup the SSH daemon on the remote computer to allow X11Forwarding, check that the following lines are set in /etc/ssh/sshd_config on that computer:

X11Forwarding yes
X11DisplayOffset 10
X11UseLocalhost yes

For some newer programs and newer versions of X windows, you may need to use the -Y option instead for trusted X11 forwarding. Try using this option if your X11 windows program fails to start running with a message like this one that was for Gimp:

The program 'gimp-2.2' received an X Window System error.
This probably reflects a bug in the program.
The error was 'BadWindow (invalid Window parameter)'.
(Details: serial 154 error_code 3 request_code 38 minor_code 0)
(Note to programmers: normally, X errors are reported asynchronously;
that is, you will receive the error a while after causing it.
To debug your program, run it with the --sync command line
option to change this behavior. You can then get a meaningful
backtrace from your debugger if you break on the gdk_x_error()

reset server keys

 How to regenerate new ssh server keys

This is an unusual topic since most distribution create these keys for you during the installation of the OpenSSH server package. But it may be useful to be able generate new server keys from time to time, this happen to me when I duplicate Virtual Private Server which contains an installed ssh package.

 SSH1 protocol

For SSH1 protocol, you need a rsa1 key generated has follow:

ssh-keygen -q -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key -N '' -t rsa1
SSH2 protocol

For SSH2 protocol, you need two keys, one rsa key and one dsa key generated has follow:
ssh-keygen -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key -N '' -t rsa
ssh-keygen -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key -N '' -t dsa

phillips webcam stuff, etc
mandriva wiki             


The Firefox Web browser is quickly becoming one of the most prominent Web browsers available. The fact that it is cross-platform makes it a comfortable browser for users who have to use more than one OS. There are, however, a number of hidden "gems" that you can enable that make Firefox even more powerful than it is "out of the box."

To increase the speed of opening Web pages, there are two options you can tweak. The first is to enable HTTP pipelining, which allows Firefox to request multiple files simultaneously rather than one at a time. To enable this, type about:config in the address bar. Scroll down the list until you find network.http.pipelining and set it to true. You can also enable network.http.proxy.pipelining as well.

To speed up rendering speeds, you can tell Firefox not to wait the default quarter second before drawing Web content. The option to look for here is the nglayout.initialpaint.delay, but it may not be displayed in the preference list by default. If not, right-click on the screen and select New | Integer. Type nglayout.initialpaint.delay as the preference name and the number 0 as the value. By default, Firefox uses a value of 250 (milliseconds).

Finally, the last gem is not a preference modification but an invaluable extension that is extremely useful for anyone doing Web development. In Firefox, click Tools | Extensions and a new box will open. Click on Get More Extensions. In the new page that opens, click on Developer Tools under the All Extensions sidebar. Jump to the last page and install the Web Developer extension. Once the extension is installed, restart Firefox and you'll see a new toolbar with a number of options that include the ability to quickly validate HTML and CSS, view image dimensions, outline tables and table cells, and a lot more.


tip page

C references

dinkum c library online

Ansi C draft


pdp11 collection

X windows, XDM, etc

If you already have XDM up and running, you can skip ahead to the section on customizing XDM.

Setting Up XDM

Setting up XDM requires you to change the run level of your system. The run level controls which mode the system is running in when it is rebooted. It can run in single user mode, multiuser mode without networking, multiuser mode with networking and multiuser mode with XDM running. My system is Red Hat 5.1 and it uses run level 3 for normal multiuser operation and run level 5 for XDM operation (multiuser, plus starting X at boot time). Edit your /etc/inittab file as the root user to change the run level of the system. First, make sure the XDM run level exists in /etc/inittab. It should look something like this and is usually located near the end of the file:

# Run XDM in run level 5
x:5:respawn:/usr/bin/X11/xdm -nodaemon

This is the entry from Red Hat 5.1. Slackware, Debian, SuSE and other Linux Distributions with X should be similar. The run level number is 5 in this case, but may be different in your distribution.

You can test the XDM run level by typing init 5. If the login box appears and everything looks okay, you can change the default initlevel for bootup or experiment with the XDM changes without rebooting your system. If you don't want XDM to start at boot time, skip ahead to the next section.

Make a backup copy of the /etc/inittab file before you change anything. Rename it to something like inittab.bak.1, then look for the initdefault line, which is usually near the start of the /etc/inittab file. Since you are not yet running XDM, yours probably looks something like this:


To make your system start XDM at boot time, you change the 3 in this line to equal the number in the XDM run level line. In my case, I changed the 3 to a 5. Reboot your system, and a gray screen with a box in the middle asking for a user name and password will appear. You can log in and make sure everything is running okay, but that isn't necessary to complete this tutorial.

Customizing XDM

Now that XDM is up and running, we can start making changes. We will be switching between a text-mode login and the XDM screen. To get to the text mode console, press <H>ctrl<H>-<H>alt<H>-F1; to get back to the XDM screen, press <H>ctrl<H>-<H>alt<H>-F7. With some distributions, you may have to use <H>ctrl<H>-<H>alt<H>-F6 for the XDM screen.

Change to text mode and log in as root. Change directories to /usr/lib/X11/xdm and look at the files present in this directory. These files control the behavior of your system when XDM is started and a user logs in using XDM. The files we are concerned with are:

Changing the Background Color

Let's start by changing the background color to something other than gray. You can use any program which can display an image or color on the background, which is sometimes called the root window. One program included with the X distribution is xsetroot. Edit the Xsetup file and comment out any programs that may already be setting the background image, like xbanner, xv or xsetroot. Add the following line:

/usr/X11R6/bin/xsetroot -solid steelblue

Color names like steelblue are defined in the /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt file. This maps color names to the actual Red/Green/Blue color settings, making things more readable. If you use a color name that has spaces in it, you need to enclose them in quotes, e.g., ``navy blue''.

Save the Xsetup file and switch back to the XDM display by using <H>ctrl<H>-<H>alt<H>-F7 (or F6, depending on which virtual console the X server is using for its display). Then restart XDM by pressing <H>ctrl<H>-<H>alt<H>-<H>backspace<H>. Note: do not use the <H>del<H> key. It will reboot the whole system instead of just restarting XDM.

You should now have a nice, solid steel-blue background. You can experiment with different colors until you find one that you like.

Changing the Background Pattern

A bitmap can be used to tile (copied over and over to cover the whole display) a simple two-color image onto the background instead of a solid color. There should be a collection of bitmaps in /usr/include/X11/bitmaps. You can also create your own using the bitmap program included with X windows. Try changing the xsetroot line to this:

/usr/X11R6/bin/xsetroot -bitmap\

Restart XDM as before, and you should now have a nice winter scene. You can change the foreground and background color with the bitmap by adding the -fg and -bg options and specifying a color. Try changing it to this:

/usr/X11R6/bin/xsetroot -bitmap\
/usr/include/X11/bitmaps/xsnow -fg blue -bg yellow

Not the most wonderful colors for snow, but you get the idea. The colors recognized by the -fg and -bg options are the same as the ones in the rgb.txt file discussed above.

You can also tile color bitmaps stored in the xpm format. The xpmroot program is used for this. Change the xsetroot line to something like this:


Displaying a Background Image

Now that we can display colors and tiled bitmaps on the background, it is time to display a picture on the background. To do this, I use a shareware graphics program called xv. You can get it from the xv home page at, or it may be included with your Linux distribution. Remember, this is shareware, and you should support the author by sending him $25 if you find his program useful.

I have chosen to use xv, but any program capable of displaying an image on the background can be used. For xv, you tell it to display the image centered on the background. You also want it to exit immediately after displaying the image; otherwise, XDM will hang until the xv program is exited manually.

/usr/X11R6/bin/xv -root -rmode 5 -quit\

I use this to put a picture in the center of the display. To view your changes, save the Xsetup file and press <H>ctrl<H>_<H>alt<H>-F7 to switch back to the XDM screen. Press <H>ctrl<H>-<H>alt<H>-<H>backspace<H> to restart the X server. You should now see your image in the center of the screen, covered by the login box. xv supports several other placement options using the -rmode command. You can see a list of these options by typing xv -rmode -1.

Displaying Random Images

Listing 1

With the help of a simple Perl script, you can display a random image on the background each time XDM is run. Listing 1 is a simplified version of a script written by Scott Scriven,

Type in this program or download it from and save it as /usr/local/bin/bkgd. Make sure execute permissions are set by typing:

chmod ugo+x /usr/local/bin/bkgd

You may also have to change the path to xv and find to match your local setup. Including the absolute paths in the script ensures it will work correctly, even when the $PATH environment variable isn't set.

To load a random background, change the xv line in Xsetup to usr/local/bin/bkgd instead. Create a /usr/lib/X11/backgrounds directory and fill it with your favorite images. A couple of good places to look for background images are and

Listing 2 is a working Xsetup file with the intermediate steps commented out with ``#'' characters.

listing 1:

#!/usr/bin/perl -w
# This picks a random background from
# /usr/local/lib/X11/backgrounds,
# and calls an image viewer to set it as the
# background.
# This script is released under the GPL version 2.
# Putting the picture into a sub-directory named
# max will make sure it is
# resized to take up the whole background.
# Feel free to change the directory the images are
# stored in...
$bkgddir = "/usr/lib/X11/backgrounds";
# And if you'd like to use a different viewer, set
# it here.
$xv = "/usr/bin/X11/xv -root -quit +noresetroot\
-rmode 5";
$max = " -maxpect";
$tmp = '/usr/bin/find $bkgddir/* ! -type d\
@pictures = split(/\n/,$tmp);
$picture = splice(@pictures, rand @pictures, 1);
if($picture =~ /max/) { $xv .= $max; }

Listing 2. Xsetup

# $XConsortium: Xsetup_0,v 1.3 93/09/28 14:30:31
# gildea Exp $
# Display gromit's picture on a black background
# /usr/bin/X11/xv -root -rmode 5 -quit
# /root/.gromit01.jpg
# Display a random image
/usr/local/bin/bkgd 1> /tmp/bkgd.1.log 2> /tmp/bkgd.2.log &

# Set the background to a color
#/usr/X11R6/bin/xsetroot -solid steelblue
# Tile the snowflake bitmap on the background
#/usr/X11R6/bin/xsetroot -bitmap /usr/include/X11/bitmaps/xsnow -fg blue
# Tile an .xpm file on the background
# Display a clock with black background and white
# hands
/usr/bin/X11/xclock -hl white -hd white -bg black\
-fg white -geometry 100x100+0+0 &

Customizing the Login Box

Now we want to customize the xlogin box using the /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xresources file. This file is also used for configuring other XDM widgets like the chooser, but we aren't going to deal with these other options here--see the XDM man page to learn about them.

We can move the xlogin box, resize it, change its color, its fonts and what it says. I have moved mine into the lower-right corner and made it as small as I can, so that it doesn't cover up the background image.

The XDM xlogin widget uses X resources to specify these settings. They are all stored in the Xresources file and are read by XDM each time it restarts. A list of the available options, taken from the XDM man page, is shown in ``Xresources Options''. I will go through each option and explain its use.

I have ignored several more advanced xlogin resources, some of which may appear in the Xresources file. It is safe to leave them alone--the defaults set when you installed X should work fine. The XDM man page contains full descriptions of each option, if you want to experiment with them.

Move and Resize the xlogin Box

The .width, .height, .x and .y settings can be used to set the size and screen position of the xlogin box, or you can use .geometry to specify all of these at once. Let's move the login box to the lower-right corner and make it 300 by 250 pixels. The screen coordinates to be used start with 0,0 in the upper-left corner, and the coordinates of the lower-right corner will depend on your screen resolution. But X has another way to specify coordinates: -0,-0 is the lower-right corner of the display, no matter what the screen size. Add this line to the Xresources file, near the other xlogin* definitions:

xlogin*geometry: 300x250-0-0

Save the file and restart the x server as you did after changing the background image. Your login box should now fit snugly into the lower-right corner of the display, revealing more of your background image.

Now we can change the colors. There are five resources relating to color in the above table. First, change the default foreground and background colors for the box using the xlogin*foreground and .background settings. Let's make it black on blue:

xlogin*foreground: black
xlogin*background: steelblue

Save and restart the X server to make sure your changes have taken effect. The greeting and login prompt did not change color, because you haven't changed them yet. You must specify each individual color you want to change. The .greetColor setting is the greeting that is displayed at the top of the box. .promptColor is the login: and password: prompt color, as well as the text you enter for your user name. .failColor is used for when the user name or password entered is invalid.

Try out these settings:

xlogin*foreground:  black
xlogin*background: steelblue
xlogin*greetColor: white
xlogin*promptColor: grey
xlogin*failColor: red

Not a terribly inspiring color scheme, but better than black on white. Play around with it until you find the colors you like.

Changing the xlogin Fonts

The resources that control the four fonts we want to change are:

Fonts under X are difficult to deal with. They have an abundance of options and modifiers, most of which are never used. The xfontsel program can make font selection much easier. Just browse through the fonts, selecting the font style, size and attributes you want. Then click on the select button and paste the font string into the Xresources file using your middle mouse button, or both mouse buttons at once if you have a two-button mouse. Add these lines to your Xresources file:


Experiment with the different fonts and sizes until you find something you like.

Changing the xlogin Prompts

You can also specify the text that is displayed for each of the four prompts associated with the xlogin widget. .greeting can be set to CLIENTHOST and will display the full host name of the system it is running on. The .namePrompt value is displayed to ask for the user name, .passwdPrompt asks for the password, and .fail is displayed when an unsuccessful login occurs. For example:

xlogin*greeting:         Welcome!
xlogin*namePrompt: Name:\040
xlogin*passwdPrompt: Password:
xlogin*fail: !WRONG!

Add a Clock to Your XDM Screen

X distributions usually include the xclock program which can display a nifty looking analog clock. Add it to your XDM screen by inserting this line in your Xsetup file:

xclock -hl white
-hd white -bg black -fg white\ -geometry 100x100+0+0 &

This will display an analog clock of moderate size in the upper-left corner of the screen. The clock may stay running, even after a user has logged in.

Well, that's about it for the basic customization of XDM. There are many things to play with, and hopefully I have given you a good framework with which to begin experimenting. No two users have the same tastes, so it may take some time before you finally get the look and feel you want.

Login manager:
/etc/sysconfig/displaymanager and change


VNC Server/Client Quickstart

VNC Server Quickstart Instructions
I performed this on Red Hat Advanced Server 2.1 and Fedora Core 1 and 2. It should work on Red Hat 7.3, 8,9 and Enterprise 3.

Note: I would only recommend using VNC between hosts behind a firewalled environment. Passwords are transmitted in clear text.
If you simply must use VNC to use a GUI remotely outside of a firewall I would recommend connecting via SSHv2 to the VNC Server, then initiating VNC inside the SSH Tunnel.

On VNC Server machine with vnc-server installed
1)Type vncserver -geometry 800x600 (or whatever resolution you prefer)
2) There will be a session number displayed .This will create a .vnc directory in your home directory. (/home/yourself/.vnc)
3) Type cd /home/yourself/.vnc
4)Type ls -alc
-You should see a script called xstartup
5)Type vi xstartup or use whatever text editor you prefer
-This is where we will setup your vnc session to use your window manager of choice
-Find the section where it says twm & and replace it with your choice. I know there are more, but these seem to be the most popular ones. Don't include what I have in the parenthesis
-startkde & (used for the KDE window manager)
-exec gnome-session & (used for the Gnome window manager)
-startxfce4 & (used for the XFCE4 window manager, my favorite choice)

6)Now type vncserver -kill:1 (1 is our session number)
-This stops the VNC Server so that the xstartup script we just edited can be re-read when we restart the server
7)Type vncserver (to start the session back up)
8)Type ps ax | grep vnc (check if your session is up and running)

Let's connect to the VNC Server!

From a Linux Box with the vncviewer package installed
1)Type vncviewer hostname or IP address:1 (1 meaning whatever session number you chose)
2)Enter your Linux local account password assigned on VNC Server machine

From a Windows Box with TightVnc or RealVnc client installed
1)Start your VNC client and type the VNC Server hostname or IP address:1 (1 meaning whatever session number you chose)
From a Java Enabled Browser on any platform (not the best but it works)
1)Type http://IP address of VNC Server:580x (x will indicate session number)
ex.. ( for session 1)
ex.. ( for session 2)
1)I keep getting new session numbers every time I type vncserver. I just want session 1 running
-By default each session is still active even after disconnecting from remote vnc session. -You only type vncserver if you want to use multiple sessions
-You can kill the extra sessions by typing vncserver -kill:session number or ps ax | grep vnc to see which sessions are running, then type kill -9 ID number of the session you don't want
-If it all gets messed up you can start over with the sessions by typing rm -rf .vnc in your home directory on the VNC Server machine. Then go into your /tmp/.X11-unix directory and remove X1,X2...etc for each session number (Don't try and remove the X0 file!)
repeat steps 1-8 on the VNC server machine setup

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Install tricks

from posting on linux forums:

Well, at least it looks that way. Here's a summary of how far I have got:

- downloaded a copy of ms-dos 6.2 - loaded onto diskette
- added duse.exe to diskette (see
- added loadlin.exe to diskette (see
- modified autoexec.bat and config.sys to load duse (see to allow dos access to usb cdrom drive
- booted from diskette
- successfully recognised usb cdrom as drive E:
- cd to E:\isolinux\alt0
- executed the following command - this is a single command so ignore any line breaks if it wraps:

a:\loadlin vmlinuz initrd=all.gz root=/dev/ram3 ramdisk_size=36000 automatic=method:cdrom

This successfully started the boot process (without booting the hardware, thanks to loadlin) and the installation is now well under way.

I sincerely hope not to be coming back to report that it broke half way through!


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FTP Netrc

Permissions and location of the .netrc

The .netrc should be in your home-directory and the permissions on the file should be unreadable for everybody except the owner:

[~] chichi>ls -al .netrc
-rw------- 1 edwin wheel 246 Aug 27 16:14 .netrc

You can set to these settings with chmod 600 .netrc.

Layout of the .netrc

Machine definitions

The first part of the .netrc is filled up with host-definitions:

login anonymous

machine myownmachine
login myusername
password mypassword

What it is saying now is nothing more than "If you connect to, login as anonymous and use as password." and "If you connect to myownmachine, login as myusername and use mypassword as password.".

Macro definitions

This part of the .netrc consists of macros which can be used to perform automated tasks:

macdef uploadtest
cd /pub/tests
put filename.tar.gz

macdef dailyupload
cd /pub/tests
put daily-$1.tar.gz

Keep in mind that there should be an empty line after the last macdef statement. If you don't do this, ftp will complain about it.

The first one is saying "Go to the /pub/tests directory, switch to binary mode, put a file there and quit it". The second one is saying the same, except that the name of the file is based on a parameter on the macro-call (see Usage of the .netrc for more about this).

Usage of the .netrc

Macros can be called from both inside ftp:

[~] chichi>ftp myownmachine
ftp: connect to address ::1: Connection refused
Connected to localhost.
220 myownmachine FTP server (Version 6.00LS) ready.
331 Password required for myusername.
230 User myusername logged in.
Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
ftp> $ uploadtest
cd temp
250 CWD command successful.
put filename.tar.gz
local: filename.tar.gz remote: filename.tar.gz
150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for 'filename.tar.gz'
100% |**************************************************| 1103 00:00 ETA
226 Transfer complete.
1103 bytes sent in 0.01 seconds (215.00 KB/s)
221 Goodbye.

...or from on the command-line:

[~] chichi>echo "\$ uploadtest" | ftp myownmachine
ftp: connect to address ::1: Connection refused
100% |**************************************************| 1103 00:00 ETA

There is not much information here, because ftp doesn't expect a terminal here. If you use ftp -v, there will be more output.

An example with arguments is

[~] chichi>echo "\$ dailyupload `date +'%Y%m%d'`"
$ dailyupload 20010827
[~] chichi>echo "\$ dailyupload `date +'%Y%m%d'`" | ftp myownmachine
ftp: connect to address ::1: Connection refused
100% |**************************************************| 1103 00:00 ETA


Standard Signals

Linux supports the standard signals listed below. Several signal numbers are architecture dependent, as indicated in the "Value" column. (Where three values are given, the first one is usually valid for alpha and sparc, the middle one for i386, ppc and sh, and the last one for mips. A - denotes that a signal is absent on the corresponding architecture.)

First the signals described in the original POSIX.1-1990 standard.
Signal Value Action Comment

or death of controlling process
SIGINT 2 Term Interrupt from keyboard
SIGQUIT 3 Core Quit from keyboard
SIGILL 4 Core Illegal Instruction
SIGABRT 6 Core Abort signal from abort(3)
SIGFPE 8 Core Floating point exception
SIGKILL 9 Term Kill signal
SIGSEGV 11 Core Invalid memory reference
SIGPIPE 13 Term Broken pipe: write to pipe with no readers
SIGALRM 14 Term Timer signal from alarm(2)
SIGTERM 15 Term Termination signal
SIGUSR1 30,10,16 Term User-defined signal 1
SIGUSR2 31,12,17 Term User-defined signal 2
SIGCHLD 20,17,18 Ign Child stopped or terminated
SIGCONT 19,18,25 Cont Continue if stopped
SIGSTOP 17,19,23 Stop Stop process
SIGTSTP 18,20,24 Stop Stop typed at tty
SIGTTIN 21,21,26 Stop tty input for background process
SIGTTOU 22,22,27 Stop tty output for background process

The signals SIGKILL and SIGSTOP cannot be caught, blocked, or ignored.

kill -SIGUSR2 `cat /var/run/`
kill -SIGUSR2 `pidof someprocess`